Catfish is one of the types of fish that are able to live in high density. This fish has a conversion rate of feed into a good body weight. With properties such as these, the cultivation of catfish will be very profitable if done intensively.
There are two Catfish Aquaculture business segment, that segment of the seeding and the enlargement of the segments. Betjuan hatchery segment to produce seed of catfish, while the segment aims to produce enlargement catfish ready consumption. On this occasion alamtani will discuss the stages of preparation of the Catfish Aquaculture segments of the enlargement.
Preparation of catfish farming pond
There are a variety of types of pools that can be used for catfish farming. Each type has advantages and disadvantages of ponds each when are reviewed in terms of cultivation. To decide what pool of suitable, please consider the environmental conditions, the availability of manpower and funding sources exist.
Outdoor types commonly used in fish farming Catfish is the outdoor soil, cement ponds, pond floating nets and tarps, keramba. But in this article we will discuss the ground pool, given the type of this pool is most widely used by fish farmers. As additional knowledge, please read how to make a fish pond. The stages that must be done in setting up the outdoor soil is as follows:
a. Drying and processing ground
Before the seed is scattered, catfish ponds should be dried telebih. Pegeringan long range 3-7 days or rely on the searing Sun. As a rule of thumb, if the surface is already cracked, the pool could be considered already quite dry.
Draining the pool aimed at severing the existence of microorganisms causing seedling disease of evil. These microorganisms can be bekembang from the period previous catfish farming. With drying and drying out, the majority of pathogenic microorganisms will die.
Once dried, the ground ploughed or reversed with a hoe. The hijacking of land needed to repair kegemburan the ground and dispose of toxic gases that are buried in the ground.
Simultaneously with the process of hijacking, lift the layer of black mud found at the bottom of the pool. The usually foul-smelling mud due to store toxic gases such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. The gases that are formed from a pile of leftover feed that doesn't eat fish.
b. Liming and fertilizing
Liming serves to balance the acidity and help eradicate microbial pathogens. This type of limestone or dolomite used was limestone tohor.
Liming is done by way of a stocked evenly on the surface of the base of the pond. After ditebari back ground lime, lime so that it penetrates into the Interior. The dose required for liming is 250-750 grams per square meter, or depending on the degree of acidity of the soil. The more acidic the soil the more lime is needed.
The next step is fertilization. Use organic fertilizer blend plus urea and TSP. Types of organic fertilizer that is recommended is manure or compost. The overdose as much as 250-500 grams per square metre. While chemical fertilizers are urea and TSP each 15 grams and 10 grams per square metre. Basic fertilizing the pond aims to provide nutrients for aquatic biota such as phytoplankton and worms. The useful life for natural food catfish.
c. pool water Settings
Water height is ideal for cultivating Catfish is 100-120 cm. Filling of the pool is done gradually. After the pool, with the water content is fostered to the limit of 30-40 cm. allow outdoor tersinari Sun for one week.
With such depth, sunlight can still penetrate to the base of the pool and allows the basic pond biota such as phytoplankton grow well. Pond water that was already coloured phytoplankton overgrown greenery.
After one week, the seed of the catfish were stocked ready. Next, plus the pool water regularly in accordance with the growth of catfish to the ideal height.
The selection of seed catfish
Catfish farming success rate largely determined by the quality of the seeds are stocked. There are several types of catfish commonly cultivated in Indonesia. Please read more about the types of catfish farming.
We recommend this type of Sangkuriang catfish developed BBPBAT Sukabumi. Sangkuriang Catfish is a result of the improvement of clarias gariepinus. BBPBAT developed because the quality of sangkuriang catfish clarias gariepinus currently circulating in the community declined from time to time.
The seed of the catfish we can get by way of purchase or make your own catfish hatchery. To create your own seeding please read the hatchery fish catfish and techniques spawning catfish.
a. the terms superior seed
The seed of the seed should be stocked which is really healthy. Traits of a healthy seed movement is lively, there is no defect or cuts on the surface of his body, free from the seedling diseases and their normal movement. To test it, place the fish in the stream of water. If the fish challenge the direction of flow of the water and can survive their movement means either.
The size of the seeds for cultivating catfish usually has a length of about 5-7 cm. median size in order to keep the fish can grow and develop synchronously. From the seed of that, in a period of maintenance of the 2,5-3,5 months will be obtained as a catfish the size of consumption of 9-12 tail per kilogram.
b. a way of spreading seed
Before the seeds are stocked, do the climate adjustments first. The trick, place seed with its container (bucket/jeriken) into the pool. Leave on for 15 minutes to allow the temperature adjustment occurs the place seed with the temperature of the outdoor environment as its new. Tilt the container and let the seeds out by itself. This method is useful to prevent stress on the seed.
Scatter the seeds of catfish into ponds with a density of 200-400 tail per square meter. The better the quality of the pool water, the higher the amount of seed that can be accommodated. High water should be no more than 40 cm while the seeds are stocked. This is to keep the seed fish can reach the surface of the water to take the feed or breathing. Charging a next pool of adapted to the size of the fish's body until it reaches the ideal water.
Determine the capacity of the outdoor
Here's how to calculate the capacity in the pool for catfish farming intensively. The assumption of the depth of the pond 1-1.5 meter (depth is recommended). Then stocking density seedling catfish recommended is 200-400 tail per square meter. Example, for outdoor measuring 3 x 4 meters then the number of seed fish a minimum of (3 × 4) = 200 x 2400 maximum tail, (3 × 4) x 400 = 4800 tail.
Note: kapaistasnya ground pool a little more from the pool wall.
Feed for catfish farming
Feed is the largest cost component in cultivating catfish. There are so many brands and range of feed on the market. Good catfish feed is a feed that offers Food Convertion Ratio (FCR) is smaller than one. FCR is the ratio of the amount of feed compared to growth of meat. The smaller the value, the better the quality of the FCR of feed.
To achieve maximum results with minimal costs, apply the main feeding and feed additional balanced. When the feed factory feels expensive, please try to make your own catfish feed alternatives.
a. the main feeding
As a carnivorous fish, catfish feed should contain a lot of animal protein. In general the content of nutrients needed Catfish is a protein (minimum 30%), fat (4-16%), carbohydrates (15-20%), vitamins and minerals.
A variety of pellets that are sold over the counter average is already equipped with the nutritional information. Live us clever-clever pick which one to be trusted. Remember, do not buy the feed expires.
The feed must be provided according to your needs. In General every day requires catfish feed 3-6% of the weight of his body. For example, the catfish weighing 50 grams of it requires as much feed 2.5 grams (5% of body weight) per tail. Then every 10 days to grab samplingnya, then weigh and adjust again the amount of feed provided. Two weeks ahead of the harvest, the percentages of feeding is reduced to 3% of the weight of the body.
Feeding schedule should be adjusted with the appetite of fish. Frequency of 4-5 times a day. Frequency of feeding on small fish should be more often. Feeding time can be morning, noon, afternoon and evening.
Catfish is a nocturnal, active at night. Consider feeding more on the afternoon and evening. The giver should feed the jelly fish see the reaction. Provide feed when aggressive eating catfish feed and stop when the fish have already seen lazy to eat it.
b. additional feeding
In addition to the main feed, could be considered also to give an extra feed. Additional feeding is very help save expenses feed the drain bag.
When our pond near the fish auction, could be considered the granting of fish fresh rucah. Rucah fish is a result of the fish of the sea are not feasible because of the size of human consumption or defects in his capture. It could be by making the maggots from the Lees knew.
Keong mas and chicken waste can be provided with prior processing. Of processing can be done by boiling. Then separate the snail meat mas with the shell, then chopped. Chicken clean the feathers to waste before the fed on catfish.
One thing to watch out for in Catfish feed, do not get late or less. Because the catfish have cannibals, namely like to prey on the like. When a shortage of fodder, fish's larger size will feed on smaller fish.
Another important thing in fish farming Catfish is water management pond. To get the maximum quality and quantity of water must be maintained.
Supervise the quality of the water from the cover of the rest of the feed that is not exhausted in the bottom of the pool. The heap will generate ammonia or hydrogen sulfide gas that is characterized by the presence of a foul smell.
When has a foul smell, remove one-third of the water bottom. Then fill up again with water. The frequency of disposal water strongly depends on the feeding habit. When feeding in many poses, the turnover of the remaining water will more often performed.
Controlling pests and diseases
The most common pests in cultivated catfish among other pest predators such as otters, snakes, ferrets, sero water and birds. While the pest becoming competitors among other fish oreochromis mossambicus. To prevent it is to install a strainer on the way in and out of the water or put up a fence around the pool.
Disease in Catfish farming can come from protozoa, bacteria and viruses. This microorganism causes a third variety of deadly diseases. Some of them are white spots, bloated bellies and sores on the head and tail.
To prevent the incidence of infectious diseases is to maintain water quality, control excess feed, maintain the cleanliness of the pool, and maintain the temperature of the outdoor range 28oC. In addition to infectious diseases, catfish can also developing non-infections such as yellow, vitamin deficiency and others. To learn more about disease control please read pest control and disease catfish.
Harvest cultivation of catfish
Catfish can be harvested after reaching a size of 9-12 tail per kg. The size of that can be achieved within the next 2.5-3.5 months from seed-size 5-7 cm. In contrast to domestic consumption, for the purpose of export of catfish usually reach a size of 500 grams per tail.
One day (24 hours) before the harvest, we recommend catfish feed was not given in order not to waste the shit while being transported. At a time when Catfish are harvested to do sorting for misahkan catfish based on its size. The separation of the size of the impact on prices. Catfish is already disortasi by size will increase revenue for breeders.